Standard of Care

Resources & References

An Online Course:
Standard of Care in Psychotherapy & Counseling

Table Of Contents


Online Resources



American Psychiatric Association (ApA), (2004). Practice Guidelines. Retrieved from

American Psychological Association (APA). (2010). Guidelines for Child Custody evaluation in Family Law Procedures. American Psychologist, 65/9, 863–867. Retrieved from

Aoyagi, M. & Portenga, S. (2010) The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(3):253-259.

Berman, J. S., & Norton, N. C. (1985). Does professional training make a therapist more effective? Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 401-407.

Barnett, J. E., (2017). Unavoidable Incidental Contacts and Multiple Relationships in Rural Practice. In Zur, O. (Ed.) pp 97-107 Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Bersoff, D. N. (1994). Explicit ambiguity: The 192 ethics code as oxymoron. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 382-387.

Brownlee, K., Halverson, Glenn and Chassie, A. (2012.). The Development of Dual and Multiple Relationships for Social Workers in Rural Communities, Journal of Comparative Social Work 2/1.

Bucky, S. F. & Stolberg, R. A. (2017). Multiple Relationships in Sports Psychology. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Carr, H & Gidman, J. (2012). Juggling the dual role of practitioner and educator: practice teachers’ perceptions. Community Practitioner, 85/2, pp. 23-26.

Catts, S. V., & O’Toole, B. I. (2016). The treatment of schizophrenia: Can we raise the standard of care? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(12), 1128-1138.

Caudill, C. O. (2004). Therapists under fire. Retrieved from

Cukrowicz, K.C., Wingate, L.R., Driscoll, K.A. Joiner Jr., T. E. (2004). A Standard of Care for the Assessment of Suicide Risk and Associated Treatment: The Florida State University Psychology Clinic as an Example. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 34(1), 87-100. doi:10.1023/B:JOCP.0000010915.77490.7

Doverspike, W. (1999). Ethical Risk Management: Guidelines for Practice, a practical ethics handbook. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2007). Competence in competency-based supervision practice: Construct and application. Professional psychology: Research and practice, 38(3), 232-240.

Fleer, J (2000). Ambiguities in the ethics code. Independent Practitioner, 20/4. Retrieved from IPFall00/Advocacy/fleer.html

Grosso, F. C. (1997). Ethics for marriage, family, and child counselors. Santa Barbara, CA: Author.

Harris, E. A. (2002). Legal and Ethics Risks and Risk Management in Professional Psychological Practices. Workshop reader, March, LA.

Halverson, G., & Brownlee, K. (2010). Managing ethical considerations around dual relationships in small rural and remote Canadian communities. International Social Work, 53(2), 247-260.

Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2015). Boundary Issues in Counseling: Multiple Roles and Responsibilities (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Johnson, W. B. (2011). “I’ve got this friend:” Multiple roles, informed consent, and friendship in the military. In W. B. Johnson & G. P. Koocher (Eds.), Ethical conundrums, quandaries, and predicaments in mental health practice: A casebook from the files of experts (pp. 175-182). New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, W. B., Grasso, I., & Maslowski, K. (2010). Conflicts between ethics and law for military mental health providers, Military Medicine, 175, 148-153.

Johnson, W. B & Johnson, S. J., (2017). Unavoidable and Mandated Multiple Relationships in Military Settings. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Koocher, G. P., & Keith-Spiegel, P. C. (2016). Ethics in Psychology and the Mental Health Professions: Professional Standards and Cases (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Koocher, G. P. & Keith-Spiegel, P., (2017). Multiple Relationships in Educational Settings. In Zur, O. (Ed.) Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Koocher, G. P. (2004). The myths about empirically validated therapies. Independent Practitioner, 24/2, 62-63.

Lazarus, A. A. and Zur, O. (Eds.) (2002), Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy. New York: Springer.

Lambert, M. J. (1991). Introduction to psychotherapy research. In L. E. Beutler and M. Crago, Psychotherapy Research. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 1-11.

Lampropoulos, G. K. (2000). A Reexamination of the Empirically Supported Treatments Critiques. Psychotherapy Research, 10 474-477, 2000.

Lazarus, A. A. (1994). How certain boundaries and ethics diminish therapeutic effectiveness. Ethics and Behavior, 4, 255-261.

Levant, Ronald F. (2004). The Empirically Validated Treatments Movement: A Practitioner/Educator Perspective. Clinical Psychology, 11: 219-224

Malesky, L. A. & Peters, C. (2012). Defining Appropriate Professional Behavior for Faculty and University Students on Social Networking Websites Higher Education. The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 63, 135-151

Mallory, A., Brown, J., Conner, S., & Henry, U. (2017). Finding what works: New clinicians’ use of standards of care with transgender clients. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 45(1), 27-36.

Pynoos, R. S., Fairbank, John A., Steinberg, A. M., Amaya-Jackson, L., Gerrity, E., Mount, M. L., & Maze, J. (2008). The National Child Traumatic Stress Network: Collaborating to improve the standard of care. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(4), 389-395.

Quattrocchi, M. R., & Schopp, R. F. (2005). Tarasaurus Rex: A Standard of care that could not adapt. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11(1), 109-137.

Reamer, F. G. (2012). Boundary Issues and Dual Relationships in the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press.

Reid, W. H. (1998). Standard of care and patient need. The Journal of Psychiatric Practice, May issue. Retrieved from

Russell, et. al.(2016). Professional standards of practice for psychologists, social workers, and counselors in SCI rehabilitation. Journal of Spinal Cord Med 39(2): 127–145.

Stapleton, A. B., Hankes, D. M., Hays, K. F., Parham, W. D. (2010). Ethical dilemmas in sport psychology: A dialogue on the unique aspects impacting practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41(2), 143-152.

Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (APA Div. 12 Report). (1995). Training in and dissemination of empirically validated psychological treatments: Report and recommendations. The Clinical Psychologist, 48, 3-23

Task Force for the Development of Practice Recommendations For The Provision of Humanistic Psychosocial Services. (1997). Division 32, Humanistic Psychology response. Retrieved from

Williams, M. H. (1997). Boundary violations: Do some contended standards of care fail to encompass commonplace procedures of Humanistic, Behavioral, and Eclectic Psychotherapies? Psychotherapy, 34 (3), 238-249

Williams, M. H., (2003). The curse of risk management. The Independent Practitioner, 23 (4), 202-205

Woody, R. H. (1998). Fifty ways to avoid malpractice. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange

Zur, O. (2001). Out-of-office experience: When crossing office boundaries and engaging in dual relationships are clinically beneficial and ethically sound. Independent Practitioner, 21/1, 96-100

Zur, O. (2004). Bartering in psychotherapy and counseling: Complexities, Case Studies and Guidelines. Online publication. Retrieved June 1, 2004 from:

Zur, O. (2007a). Boundaries in Psychotherapy: Ethical and Clinical Explorations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association – APA Books.

Zur, O. (2007b). Touch In Therapy and The Standard of Care in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Bringing Clarity to Illusive Relationships. U.S. Association of Body Psychotherapy Journal, 6/2, 61-93.

Zur, O. (Ed.) (2017). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. New York: Routledge.

Zur, O. & Gonzalez, S. (2002). Multiple relationships in military psychology. In A. A. Lazarus and O. Zur (Eds.) Dual Relationships and Psychotherapy, New York: Springer, pp. 315-328.

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