Motivational Interviewing

Resources & References

An Online Course:
Motivational Interviewing: Foundations for Change

Table Of Contents




  • Abuhamdeh, S., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Jalal, B. (2014). Enjoying the possibility of defeat: Outcome uncertainty, suspense, and intrinsic motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 2014; 12 (5): 1123
  • Amrhein PC, Miller WR, Yahne C, Knupsky A, Hochstein D. (2004). Strength of client commitment language improves with therapist training in motivational interviewing. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(5):74A.
  • Amrhein PC, Miller WR, Yahne CE, Palmer M, Fulcher L. (2003). Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71:862–878. [PubMed: 14516235]
  • Apodaca TR, Longabaugh R. (2009). Mechanisms of change in motivational interviewing: A review and preliminary evaluation of the evidence. Addiction, 104:705–715. [PubMed: 19413785]
  • Arkkukangas, M., Hultgren, S. (2019)  Implementation of motivational interviewing in a fall prevention exercise program: experiences from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Res Notes 12, 270 doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4309-x
  • Arkowitz, H.; Westra, HA.; Miller, WR.; Rollnick, S., Eds. (2008). Motivational interviewing in treating psychological problems. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Baer JS, Beadnell B, Garrett SB, Hartzler B, Wells EA, Peterson PL. (2004). Adolescent change language within a brief motivational intervention and substance use outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22:570–575. [PubMed: 19071983]
  • Baer JS, Rosengren DB, Dunn CW, Wells EA, Ogle RL, Hartzler B (2004). An evaluation of workshop training in motivational interviewing for addiction and mental health clinicians. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73:99-106.
  • Baker A, Lewin T, Reichler H, et al. (2002). Evaluation of a motivational interview for substance use within psychiatric in-patient services. Addiction; 97: 1329–1337.
  • Ball SA, Martino S, Nich C, Frankforter TL, Van Horn D, Crits-Christoph P, Woody GE, Obert JE, Farentinos C, Carroll KM. (2007). Site matters: Multisite randomized trial of motivational enhancement therapy in community drug abuse clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75:556–567. [PubMed: 17663610]
  • Blanchard KA, Morgenstern J, Morgan TJ, et al. (2003). Motivational subtypes and continuous measures of readiness for change: concurrent and predictive validity. Psychol Addict Behav, 17: 56–65.
  • Boardman T, Catley D, Grobe J, Little T, Ahluwalia J. (2006). Using motivational interviewing with smokers: Do therapist behaviors relate to engagement and therapeutic alliance? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31:329–339. [PubMed: 17084786]
  • Borsari B, Carey KB. (2000). Effects of a brief motivational intervention with college student drinkers. J Consult Clin Psychol, 68: 728–733.
  • Burke BL, Arkowitz H, Menchola M.(2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71:843–861. [PubMed: 14516234]
  • Carroll KM, Ball SA, Nich C, Martino S, Frankforter TL, Farentinos C, Kunkel LE, Mikulich- Gilbertson SK, Morgenstern J, Obert JL, Polcin DL, Snead N, Woody GE. (2006). Motivational interviewing to improve treatment engagement and outcome in individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse: A multisite effectiveness study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81:301– 312. [PubMed: 16169159]
  • Catley D, Harris KJ, Mayo MS, Hall S, Okuyemi KS, Boardman T, Ahluwalia J. (2006). Adherence to principles of motivational interviewing and client within-session behavior. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34:43–56.
  • Caudwell, K., Keatley, D. (2016). The Effect of Menʼs Body Attitudes and Motivation for Gym Attendance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2016; 30 (9): 2550
  • Cohen, R., Bavishi, C., Rozanski, A. (2015). Purpose in Life and Its Relationship to All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2015; 1 (4); 665
  • Carroll KM, Libby B, Sheehan J, Hyland N. (2001). Motivational interviewing to enhance treatment initiation in substance abusers: an effectiveness study. Am J Addict, 10: 335–339.
  • Cooper, L. (2017).  Motivational interviewing: an evidence-based treatment for older adults.  Innovation in Aging, 1(1), p. 18.
  • Davis TM, Baer JS, Saxon AJ, Kivlahan DR. (2003). Brief motivational feedback improves post-incarceration treatment contact among veterans with substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend, 69: 197–203.
  • DiIorio C, Resnicow K, McDonnell M, et al. (2003). Using motivational interviewing to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications: a pilot study. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care, 14: 52–62.
  • Dunn C, Deroo L, Rivara FP. (2001). The use of brief interventions adapted from motivational interviewing across behavioral domains: A systematic review. Addiction, 96:1725–1742. [PubMed: 11784466]
  • Erickson SJ, Gerstle M, Feldstein SW. (2005). Brief interventions and motivational interviewing with children, adolescents, and their parents in pediatric health settings: A review. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 159:1173–1180. [PubMed: 16330743]
  • Evangeli M, Engelbrecht SK, Swartz L, Turner K, Forsberg L, Soka N (2009). An evaluation of a brief motivational interviewing training course for HIV/ AIDS counsellors in Western Cape Province, South Africa. AIDS Care, 21:189-196.
  • Gaume J, Gmel G, Faouzi M, Daeppen JB (2009). Counselor skill influences outcomes of brief motivational interventions. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37:151-159.
  • Guiffrida, D., Lynch, M., Wall, A., Abel, D. (2015). Do Reasons for Attending College Affect Academic Outcomes?: A Test of a Motivational Model From a Self-Determination Theory Perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 2015; 54 (2): 121
  • Haugan, P.S.; Berge, M.C.; Breiseth, V.;  Sund, E.R. and Hedlund, M. (2019). Does training in Motivational Interviewing affect the ability to build working alliance? – an intervention study.  Society, Health & Vulnerability, 10:1.  DOI: 10.1080/20021518.2019.1595365
  • Hettema J, Steele J, Miller WR. (2005). Motivational interviewing. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1:91–111.
  • Hodgins DC, Ching LE, McEwen J. (2009). Strength of commitment language in motivational interviewing and gambling outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23:122–130. [PubMed: 19290696]
  • Houck, JM.; Moyers, TB. (2008). What you do matters: Therapist influence on client behavior during motivational interviewing sessions. Paper presented at the International Addiction Summit; Melbourne, Australia.
  • Lai DT, Cahill K, Qin Y, Tang JL (2010). Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. CD006936.
  • Laws, M. B., Magill, M., Mastroleo, N. R., Gamarel, K. E., Howe, C. J., Walthers, J., … Kahler, C. W. (2018). A sequential analysis of motivational interviewing technical skills and client responses. Journal of substance abuse treatment92, 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2018.06.006
  • Madson MB, Campbell TC. (2008). Measures of fidelity in motivational enhancement: A systematic review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 31:67–73. [PubMed: 16814012]
  • Madson MB, Loignon AC, Lane C (2009). Training in motivational interviewing: a systematic review. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36:101-109.
  • Miller, WR. (2005). The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) Code: Version 2.0. http://
  • Miller WR, Mount KA.(2001). A small study of training in motivational interviewing: Does one workshop change clinician and client behavior? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29:457–471.
  • Miller, WR and Moyers, TB. (2007). Eight Stages in Learning Motivational Interviewing. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 5:3-17.
  • Miller, WR and Mount, KA. (2001). A Small Study of Training in Motivational Interviewing: Does One Workshop Change Clinician and Client Behavior? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29:457-471.
  • Miller WR, Rollnick S.(2002). Motivational interviewing, preparing people to change addictive behavior, Second Edition. New York: The Guildford Press.
  • Miller, WR and Rollnick, S (2009). Ten things that motivational interviewing is not. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37:129-140.
  • Miller WR, Yahne CE, Moyers TB, Martinez J, Pirritano M (2004). A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 72:1050-1062.
  • Miller WR, Yahne CE, Tonigan JS.(2003). Motivational interviewing in drug abuse services: a randomised trial. J Consult Clin Psychol, 71: 754–763.
  • Mitcheson L, Bhavsar K, McCambridge J (2009). Randomized trial of training and supervision in motivational interviewing with adolescent drug treatment practitioners. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37:73-78.
  • Moyers, TM. (2004). History and happenstance: How motivational interviewing got its start. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 18:291–298.
  • Moyers, TB and Martin T. (2006). Therapist influence on client language during motivational interviewing sessions: Support for a potential causal mechanism. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30:245–251. [PubMed: 16616169]
  • Moyers TB, Martin T, Catley D, Harris KJ, Ahluwalia JS. (2003). Assessing the integrity of motivational interventions: Reliability of the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31:177–184.
  • Moyers TB, Martin T, Christopher PJ, Houck JM, Tonigan JS, Amrhein PC.(2007). Client language as a mediator of motivational interviewing efficacy: Where is the evidence? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(S3):40–47.
  • Moyers TB, Martin T, Manuel JK, Hendrickson SML, Miller WR. (2005). Assessing competence in the use of motivational interviewing. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28:19–26. [PubMed: 15723728]
  • Moyers T, Manuel JK, Wilson PG, Hendrickson SML, Talcott W, Durand P (2008). A Randomized Trial Investigating Training in Motivational Interviewing for Behavioral Health Providers. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36:149-162.
  • Moyers T, Martin T, Manuel JK, Miller WR, Ernst D (2007). Revised Global Scales: Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity 3.0 (MITI 3.0).
  • Moyers T, Miller W, Hendricksen S. (2005). How does motivational interviewing work? Therapist interpersonal skill predicts client involvement within motivational interviewing sessions. J. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73:590–598.
  • Murphy JG, Duchnick JJ, Vuchinich RE, et al. (2001). Relative efficacy of a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers. Psychol Addict Behav, 15: 373–379.
  • Pakpour, A.H.; Gellert, P.; Dombrowski, S. U. and Fridlund, B. (2015).  Motivational Interviewing With Parents for Obesity: An RCT. Pediatrics, Feb.  DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-1987
  • Park S, Choi J, Lee S, Oh C, Kim C, La S, Lee J, Suh B. (2019).  Designing a Chatbot for a Brief Motivational Interview on Stress Management: Qualitative Case Study. J Med Internet Res, 21(4):e12231.  DOI: 10.2196/12231.
  • Phillips, A., Chamberland, P., Hekler, E., Abrams, J., Eisenberg, M. (2016). Intrinsic Rewards Predict Exercise via Behavioral Intentions for Initiators but via Habit Strength for Maintainers. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2016; 210 (3): 1154
  • Pink, Dan. (2011). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. New York, N.Y.: Riverhead Trade.
  • Pinto BM, Lynn H, Marcus BH, et al. (2001). Physician-based activity counseling: intervention effects on mediators of motivational readiness for physical activity. Ann Behav Med, 23: 2–10.
  • Resnicow, K. and McMaster, F. (2012). Motivational Interviewing: Moving from Why to How with Autonomy Support. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 9(1):19. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-19.
  • Rollnick, S.; Miller, WR. and Butler, CC. (2008). Motivational interviewing in health care. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Rubak S, Sandbaek A, Lauritzen T, Christensen B. (2005). Motivational interviewing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General Practice, 55:305–312. [PubMed: 15826439]
  • Rubel EC, Sobell LC, Miller WR. (2000). Do continuing education workshops improve participants’ skills? Effects of a motivational interviewing workshop on substance abuse counselors’ skills and knowledge. The Behavior Therapist, 23:73–77. 90.
  • Schmaling KB, Blume AW, Afari N. (2001). A randomised controlled pilot study of motivational interviewing to change attitudes about adherence to medications for asthma. J Clin Psychol Med Settings, 8: 167–172.
  • Schoener EP, Madeja CL, Henderson MJ, Ondersma SJ, Janisse JJ. (2006). Effects of motivational interviewing training on mental health therapist behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 82:269–275. [PubMed: 16289396]
  • Sellman JD, Sullivan PF, Dore GM, Adamson SJ, MacEwan I. (2001). A randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) for mild to moderate alcohol dependence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62:389–396. [PubMed: 11414349]
  • Strang J and McCambridge, J.(2004). Can the practitioner correctly predict outcome in motivational interviewing? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27(1):83. [PubMed: 15223098]
  • Stotts AL, Schmitz JM, Rhoades HM, Grabowski J. (2001). Motivational interviewing with cocaine-dependent patients: a pilot study. J Consult Clin Psychol, 69: 858–862.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2019). Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Use Disorder Treatment. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series No. 35, Chapter 3. SAMHSA Publication No. PEP19-02-01-003. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 33-61
  • Tappin DM, Mckay C, McIntyre D, et al. (2000). A practical instrument to document the process of motivational interviewing. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28: 17–32.
  • van Egmond, M., Berges, A., Omarshah, T., Benton, J. (2017). The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity. Psychological Science, 2017; 334 (2): 0089
  • Villarosa-Hurlocker, M.C. et al. (2019).  Examining the influence of active ingredients of motivational interviewing on client change talk.  Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 96, 39-45.
  • Webber, K., Tate, D., Ward, D., Bowling, J. (2015). Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 2015; 43 (2): 876
  • Winhusen T, Kropp F, Babcock D, Hague D, Erickson SJ, Renz C, Rau L, Lewis D, Leimberger J, Somoza E. (2008). Motivational enhancement therapy to improve treatment utilization and outcome in pregnant substance users. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35:161–173. [PubMed: 18083322]

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