Resistance to Authority

Resources & References

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Online Resources

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  • Altemeyer, B. (2004) Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities. Journal of Social Psychology, 2004, 144(4), 421-447.
  • American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Obeying and resisting malevolent orders. Retrieved December 10, 2009 from
  • Benjamin, L. T., & Simpson, J. A. (2009) The power of the situation: The impact of Milgram’s obedience studies on personality and social psychology. American Psychologist, 64, (1), 12-19.
  • Beu, D, S., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). This is war: How the politically astute achieve crimes of obedience through the use of moral disengagement. Leadership Quarterly, 15 (4), 551-568.
  • Blass, T. (2000). The Milgram paradigm after 35 years: Some things we now know about obedience to authority. In T. Blass (Ed.), Obedience to Authority: Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Blass, T. (2009). From New Haven to Santa Clara: A historical perspective on the Milgram obedience experiments. American Psychologist, 64, (1), 37-45.
  • Blass, T. (1996). The Milgram obedience experiment: Support for a cognitive view of defensive attribution. Journal of Social Psychology, 136 (3), 407-410.
  • Blass, T (2004). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. New York: Basic Books.
  • Bleske-Rechek, A. L. (2001). Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles:Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class Teaching of Psychology. The entity from which ERIC acquires the content, including journal, organization, and conference names, or by means of online submission from the author.28 (4) 260-262.
  • Bock, D.C. & Warren, N.C. (1972). Religious belief as a factor in obedience to destructive authority. Review of Religious Research, 13, (3), 185-191.
  • Burger, J.M. (2009). Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today? American Psychologist, 64 (1), 1-11.
  • Bushman, B. J. (1984). Perceived symbols of authority and their influence on compliance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 14, pp. 501-508.
  • Cialdini, R. Influence: The psychology of persuasion. New York: Collins Business, 2006.
  • Cottom, C. (1996). A bold experiment in teaching values. Educational Leadership, 53 (8), 54-58.
  • Elms, A. C. (2009) Obedience lite. American Psychologist, 64, (1), 32-36.
  • Elms, A. & Milgram, S. (1966). Personality characteristics associated with obedience and defiance toward authoritative commands. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 2, 292-289.
  • Gauld, J. (1993). Character first: The Hyde school difference. San Francisco: ICS Press. Retrieved from October 14, 2009.
  • Gray, S. (2004). Bizarre hoaxes on restaurants trigger lawsuits. The Wall Street Journal, March 30, B1-B2. Retrieved December 10, 2009 from
  • Haney, C., Banks, W.C., & Zimbardo, P. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.
  • Haan, N., Smith, M.B., & Block, J.H. (1968). Moral reasoning of young adults: Political-social behavior, family backgrounds, and personality correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 183-201.
  • Hamilton, V. L., & Kelman, H. (1990). Crimes of obedience: Toward a social psychology of authority and responsibility. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Hauser, R. (1979). A noble treason: The revolt of the Munich students against Hitler. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
  • Hinrichs, K. T. (2007). Follower propensity to commit crimes of obedience: The role of leadership beliefs. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(1), 69-76.
  • Hoffman, M. (1976). Empathy, role-taking, guilt and development of altruistic motives. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Kilham, W., & Mann, L. (1974). Level of destructive obedience as a function of transmitter and executant roles in the Milgram obedience paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29 (5), 692-702.
  • Kohlberg, L. (1976). In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Kramer, J., & Alstad, D. The Guru papers: Masks of authoritarian power. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1993.
  • London, P. (1970). The rescuers: Motivational hypotheses about Christians who saved Jews from Nazis. In J. Macauley & L. Berkowitz (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior. New York: Academic Press.
  • Mantell, D. (1971). The potential for violence in Germany. Journal of Social Issues, 27, (4), 101-112.
  • Mantell, D. M. (1974). True Americanism: Green Berets and war resisters. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Meeus, W.H.J., & Raaijmakers, Q.A.W. (1995). Obedience in modern society: The Utrecht studies. Journal of Social Issues, 51 (3), 155-175.
  • Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, pp. 371-78.
  • Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Milgram, S. (n.d.) The perils of obedience. Retrieved from December 12, 2009.
  • Miller, A. G. (2009) Reflections on “Replicating Milgram” (Burger, 2009). American Psychologist, 64, (1), 20-27.
  • Modigliani, A. & Rochat, F. (1995). The role of interaction sequences and the timing of resistance in shaping obedience and defiance to authority. Journal of Social Issues, 51 (3), 107-123.
  • Mosconi, J. & Emmett, J. (2003) Effects of a values clarification curriculum on high school students’ definitions of success. Professional School Counseling, 7(2), 68-78.
  • Oliner, S.P. & Oliner, P.M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Free Press.
  • Passini, S., & Morselli, D. (2009). Authority relationships between obedience and disobedience. New Ideas in Psychology, 27, (1), 96-106.
  • Pratkanis, P., & Aronson, E. Age of propaganda: The everyday use and abuse of persuasion. New York: Holt, 2001.
  • Presley, S.L. (1985). Moral judgment and attitudes toward authority in political resisters. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 135-151.
  • Presley, S.L. (2010). Standing up to experts and authorities: How to avoid being intimidated, manipulated, and abused. Rego Park, NY: Solomon Press.
  • PSO (2006). The human behavior experiments. Court TV and Sundance Channels, June 1.
  • Rest, J.R. (1976). New approaches in the assessment of moral judgment. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Rest, J.R. (1979). Revised manual for the Defining Issues Test. Minneapolis: Minnesota Moral Research Project.
  • Rochat, F. & Modigliani, A. (1995). The ordinary quality of resistance: From Milgram’s laboratory to the village of Le Chambon. Journal of Social Issues, 51(3), 195-210
  • Shanab, M. E., & Yahya, K. A. (1977). A behavioral study of obedience in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (7), 530-536.
  • Snyder, C.R., & Fromkin, H.L. (1977). Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 518-527.
  • Snyder, C.R., & Fromkin, H.L. (1980). Uniqueness: The human pursuit of difference. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Spence, S. (2007). Not obeying orders. The New Scientist, 194, (2603, May 12), 24.
  • Staub, E. (1993). The psychology of bystanders, perpetrators and heroic helpers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,17 (3), 315-341.
  • Staub, E. (2002). The psychology of bystanders, perpetrators and heroic helpers. In L. S. Newman & R. Ebner (Eds.), The social psychology of the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Twenge, J. M. Change over time in obedience: The jury’s still out, but it might be decreasing. American Psychologist, 64, (1), 28-31.
  • Zimbardo, P. The Lucifer effect: Understanding how good people turn evil. New York: Random House, 2007.
  • Zimbardo, P., & Leippe, M. The psychology of attitude change and social influence. New York: McGraw Hill, 1991.

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